Chemicals And Formulas

COMMONLY USED CHEMICALS

  • Metol (Elon)
  • Sodium Thiosulfate
  • Sodium Sulfite
  • Potassium Alum
  • Acetic Acid 28%
  • Pyrocatechin
  • Potassium Ferricyanide
  • Potassium Bromide
  • Benzotriazole
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • 2,4: Diamenaphenol Dihydrochloride (Amidol)

NEGATIVE FORMULAS

D-23 Developer

 Metol - 2 level teaspoons 

Sodium Sulfite - 4 tablespoons and 1 teaspoon 

Water to make 1 pint

This is STOCK solution. Dilute 1:1 with water to make working solution. Normal developing time is 8 minutes at 68 degrees F. This is a good general purpose developer, but renders best results with Kodak film. Agitate for the first minute constantly and 5 seconds every minute thereafter.

Pyrocatechin Developer

Mix solution A:

Water (distilled or boiled) 100cc 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 1.25 grams 

Pyrocatechin 8 grams

Mix solution Bx or B:
Solution Bx:

 Sodium Hydroxide - 1 gram 

COLD water to make 100cc

Solution B:

 Sodium Hydroxide - 10 grams

 COLD water to make 100cc

Mix 20 parts of solution A - 5 parts solution B

-or-

Mix 20 parts of solution A - 50 parts of solution Bx

Then mix 500 parts of water with either A:Bx or A:B solution. Normal development time is 12 to 15 minutes. Agitate as with D-23.

*IMPORTANT** WHEN MIXING SODIUM HYDROXIDE, ALWAYS USE COLD WATER, BECAUSE WITH WARM OR HOT WATER IT COULD BOIL OR EXPLODE!!!

You can also use Pyrocatechol, Pyrogallol, or Pyrogallic Acid, but I suggest using Pyrocatechol because it is more stable. Pyro is probably the best developer available today because it is a compensating developer and will retain detail in Zones X to XV.

Warning:   Pyrocatechol, Pyrogallol, and Pyrogallic Acid are all very poisonous. Take care when handling these and do not inhale the small particulate.

 Ansco 210 Stop Bath

                                                  32 oz.                      1 Liter                 4 Liters           

 Acetic Acid 28%                        1 - 1/2 oz                45cc                   180cc 

Water to make                           32 oz.                      1 liter                  4 liters

Plain Hypo Fixing Bath

 Water (125 degrees F.)             25 oz.                      750cc                3000cc 

Sodium Thiosulfate                   8 grams                   250 grams         1000 grams 

Water to make                          32 oz.                      1 liter                  4 liters

Fixing Bath (Kodak F-6) 

                                               32 oz.                        1 liter                  4 liters 

Water (125 degrees F.)            20 oz.                       600cc                2400cc 

Sodium Thiosulfate                 8 oz.                         240 grams         960 grams 

Sodium Sulfite                        1/2 oz.                      15 grams            60 grams 

Acetic Acid 28%                     1 - 1/2 oz.                 48cc                  192cc 

Kodalk                                   1/2 oz.                      15 grams            60 grams  

Potassium Alum                    1/2 oz.                       15 grams            60 grams 

Cold water to make              32 oz.                         1 liter                 4 liters

Sodium Thiosulfate rapidly drops the temperature of water when mixed. Always mix in order given.

Formalin Supplementary Hardener (Kodak SH-1)

Water                                  16 oz.                        500cc

Formaldehyde 37%             2 - 1/2 drams           10cc 

Sodium Carbonate             73 grains                    5 grams  

Water to make                   32 oz.                        1 liter 

After hardening for 3 minutes, negatives should be rinsed and placed in a fresh acid fixing bath for 5 minutes.

Metol Compensating Developer

Warm water                      75cc                         750cc 

Metol                               37 grains                  2.5 grams 

Sodium Sulfite                 3/4oz. (37 gr.)          25 grams 

Cold water to make         32oz.                        1 liter

Developing time is about 25 to 30 minutes. Use agitation plan No. 4 (consult "The Negative" by Ansel Adams).

Water Bath Developer

 Water                            75cc                          750cc 

Sodium Sulfite                2 grams                    20 grams 

Amidol                           1/2 gram                  5 grams 

Water to make               100cc                         1 liter

To use:

Plan No. 1 Immerse negative in developer (constant agitation) for 40 seconds.

Then to water (no agitation) for 2 minutes.

Then in developer for 50 seconds.

Then in water for 2 minutes (no agitation).

Then in developer for 90 seconds.

Then in water for 2 minutes (no agitation).

Plan No. 2 A sequence of short immersions in developer (constant agitation) alternating

with 2 minute immersions in water for 2 minutes (no agitation).

30 seconds developer; wash; 15 seconds developer; wash; 15 seconds developer; wash;

15 seconds developer; wash; 15 seconds developer; wash.

Two Solution Developer

 Metol                           7.5 grams 

Sodium Sulfite              100 grams 

Water to make              1 liter

This is solution No. 1.

Solution No. 2 follows:

1% Kodalk solution (10 grams Kodalk to 1 liter water)

For placement of Zone VI on Zone VI:

                                      Solution 1                                 Solution 2 

Zone VI normal              7 min.                                       3 min. 

Zone VII N-1                  4 1/2 min.                                3 min. 

Zone VIII N-2                3 1/2 min.                                 3 min. 

Zone IX N-3                  2 1/2 min.                                 3 min. 

Zone X N-4                   1 3/4 min.                                 3 min.

Placement of Zone VIII brightness on Zone VIII.

                                   Solution 1                                 Solution 2 

Zone VIII normal          7 min.                                      3 min. 

Zone IX N-1                 4 3/4 min.                                3 min. 

Zone X N-2                  4 min.                                       3 min. 

Zone XI N-3                3 1/3 min.                                 3 min. 

Zone XII N-4               2 3/4 min.                                3 min. 

Zone XIII N-5              2 min.                                      3 min.

Constant agitation in both solutions is important. If film shows a tendency to fog, prepare solution No. 2 with Potassium Bromide.

OTHER DEVELOPERS

Kodak HC-110

This developer comes in concentrate solution. For use from concentrate, working solution is made by diluting 1/4 oz. of HC-110 to 16 oz. water. Normal developing time is 10 minutes at 68 degrees F. Agitate for the first minute and 5 seconds every minute thereafter.

Kodak D-76

This developer comes in packages of dry chemicals. Follow manufacturer’s recommended mixture of solution. Recommended normal development time is 7 minutes at 68 degrees F. D-76 is not as fine grain developer as HC-110, but it replenishes well.

OTHER FIXERS

Kodak Kodafix Solution

This is available in 1 quart solution and is easy for preparation. To mix negative fixer, dilute with water 1:4. For use with paper, dilute 1:7 with water.

Kodak Rapid Fix

This is available in quantity and is more economical. It is a 2 part liquid concentrate of which one part is a hardener which is important for negatives. Manufacturer’s dilutions seem to be quite adequate for most applications. Fixing seems to be quicker than the other two Kodak fixers.

Kodak Fixer (powder)

Available in 1 quart and 1 gallon sizes, this fixer is used for all applications. When mixed, this product is a good working solution for negatives. For paper, dilute 1:2 with water.

PAPER FORMULAS

Amidol

Water                                                     800cc 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated)                    35 grams 

Amidol                                                   11 grams 

Potassium Bromide                               7.5 grams 

Benzotriazole (2% Solution)                   60cc

The addition of 5-10 grams of citric acid acts as a preservative.

Amidol is a slow acting developer which renders extremely rich black tones (especially on bromide papers). When mixing the solution, add the Amidol last and be prepared to print immediately. Amidol oxidizes quickly, so you will have only 30-45 minutes printing time in solution before degeneration. With the cost of Amidol it is important to maximize printing time unless you have a whole lot more money than me. Yes, it is expensive (last I bought was about $210.00 per pound) but it is the only thing I use to print fine art prints for exhibition or sale. It is that good! The only drawback Amidol has is that it will stain your fingernails dark brown to nearly black, depending on how much you use it. Rubber gloves will remedy this.

Also, Amidol is a vary fine powder and can be hazardous to your health if ingested , take care not to inhale the dust.

Kodak Dektol

A very good general purpose developer for paper. It comes in packages of dry chemicals that are available in 1 quart and 1 gallon mixtures. Mix with appropriate amount of water as stated by the manufacturer. This makes stock solution. For working solution, dilute stock 1:1 with water. When mixing the dry chemicals, use warm water. If used immediately, cool to 68 degrees F. If you wish a softer developer, you may dilute the stock solution 1:2 with water.

"Cold" Selenium Toner

If prints have been dried, soak in water for at least 5 minutes. Set up 3 trays for the process.

Sodium Thiosulfate                              2 pounds

Water (hot)                                           1 gallon

Sodium Thiosulfate cools the water dramatically when mixed. Use hot tap water when mixing or it will not dissolve properly.

Fill tray No. 1 with this solution. (I find that using a tray one size larger than your print size is beneficial. If you are doing 8 x 10’s, use 11 x 14 trays. This makes it much easier to work without damaging your prints.)

Tray No. 2:
Mix 100cc of hypo eliminator (orbit bath) stock solution to 400cc water.
Add 50cc of Kodak Rapid Selenium Toner. (You may have to double or triple this according to the size of trays used.)

Tray No. 3:
Mix 100cc of hypo eliminator stock solution with 400cc water. (Again, you may need more according to the tray size used.)


Place wet prints in tray no. 1 for 3 minutes.
Move to tray no. 2 (usually about 2 minutes for most papers).
Move to tray no. 3 for 2 - 3 minutes.
Wash thoroughly.

IT IS IMPORTANT THAT ALL PRINTS BE EVENLY COVERED WITH SOLUTIONS AND CONSTANTLY AGITATED THROUGH EACH PROCESS.

**WARNING** ALWAYS USE RUBBER GLOVES WHEN WORKING WITH SELENIUM!!! SELENIUM CAN (OR SHOULD I SAY WILL) ABSORB THROUGH YOUR SKIN AND BUILD UP IN YOUR SYSTEM AND COULD BECOME QUITE POSSIBLY FATAL!!! YES, WE’RE TALKING REAL DEAD!

Note: If you leave your prints in the selenium solution too long, the tone will change from the desired cold tone to a warm tone.